How to deal with green packaging in international

2022-06-22
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How to deal with green packaging in international trade (Part 2)

II. Requirements for green packaging in international trade

at present, the green packaging system has become one of the main contents of setting green standards in developed countries. The green packaging system requires the packaging of imported goods to save resources, be easy to recycle or reuse after use, be easy to decompose naturally, not pollute the environment, and protect environmental resources and consumer health. According to this system principle, in recent decades, developed countries have taken measures to formulate laws, regulations and technical standards on packaging containing environmental protection measures, mainly including the following:

1. Formulate laws and regulations on green packaging. Many developed countries require imported product packaging and waste disposal to comply with their laws and regulations through the implementation of laws and regulations

2. Some packaging materials are specified. In order to protect domestic resources, crops, buildings, water sources and forests, and prevent damage caused by pests, bacteria, microorganisms, etc. in the packaging, many countries restrict the packaging and strictly regulate the inspection and treatment. For example, the use of wood, straw, microorganisms, etc. is prohibited to cause harm. Many countries restrict the packaging materials and strictly regulate the inspection and treatment. For example, it is prohibited to use traditional natural packaging materials such as wood, straw and old gunny bags, and packaging materials containing lead, mercury and cadmium, etc

3. Limit the use of plastics that cannot be regenerated or decomposed. For example, the United States, the European Union, Japan and other countries prohibit the use of non renewable or non decomposable plastics. The design, production and commercialization of packaging products must be able to be reused and recycled

4. Enforce recycling or reuse laws. Many countries stipulate that beer, soft drinks and mineral water should all use recyclable containers. For example, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Denmark and other countries have developed recycling activities and stipulated the recycling proportion of various packaging materials

5. Collect various raw material fees, product packaging and waste disposal. Various taxes (Fees) will be levied on the enterprises producing packaging materials. If all the recyclable packaging materials are used in the product packaging, they can be exempted from tax. If some recycled materials are used, lower taxes will be levied; If non reusable or recycled materials are used throughout the country, a higher tax will be levied

III. main difficulties in implementing green packaging in China at present

1. The industrial structure of the packaging industry is not reasonable. From 1980 to 1993, the number of packaging enterprises above county level in China has increased from 2600 to 11033, including nearly 400 large enterprises. Therefore, on the whole, the packaging industry has the phenomenon of small scale, poor quality and low efficiency. Most enterprises have backward production and operation management, poor product quality and low level of comprehensive utilization of resources. Large and medium-sized enterprises that can compete with similar international industries and have good economies of scale are not enough to support the development of the whole industry. As a result, packaging materials and packaging products have not reached scale production, The result is that the total amount of packaging and its waste is not small, but for a given product, it is very different, many and scattered, which causes great difficulties for waste treatment

2. The technical structure of packaging industry is unreasonable. The performance is as follows: (1) the gradient of technology is unreasonable. Generally speaking, a reasonable gradient of gradients in line with China's national conditions should be that the proportion of intermediate technology is larger, the proportion of primary technology is the smallest, and the proportion of advanced technology is in the middle. However, there are still 10%-20% of China's packaging enterprises whose technology is quite backward. At present, only about 30% of China's packaging enterprises can reach the level of national packaging enterprises from the late 1980s to the early 1990s. Therefore, the low technical level of the packaging industry has led to the fact that the growth mode of China's packaging industry is still driven by the extension and reproduction (i.e. the extensive growth mode) rather than by technological progress and the improvement of labor productivity. (2) The technological foundation of the packaging industry consists of three parts: packaging material processing technology, packaging machinery manufacturing technology and packaging containers. At present, the technical strength of the packaging industry is mainly concentrated in the production of packaging containers, while the technical countermeasures for packaging materials and packaging machinery are only expected to be solved by the production departments of general raw materials and general machinery. This situation is increasingly unable to adapt to the development of packaging industry technology

3. The technological development capacity of the packaging industry is weak. Due to the serious lack of scientific and technological talents and the relatively insufficient capital investment in China's packaging industry, the technology development capacity of the industry is weak. According to incomplete statistics, the proportion of professional technicians in the packaging industry is only about 2%, which is much lower than the average level of 6.8% in the national industry. Therefore, the problem of talents has become one of the key factors in the development of this industry. Three quarters of the enterprises in the whole industry have not undergone technological transformation, especially the insufficient investment in large and medium-sized state-owned enterprises and basic, high-grade and wide-ranging products, which restricts the development of the industry to a considerable extent. Moreover, due to the weak and scattered scientific and technological development capacity of the packaging industry, the function of mutual cooperation is difficult to play, resulting in a large number of scientific and technological achievements not being applied to the peace of packaging

4. The formulation and implementation of packaging waste treatment regulations are extremely backward. Since the 1980s, China's environmental protection, labor, foreign trade, commodity inspection, scientific research and production, transportation and storage, circulation and use of packaging materials and containers have been committed to the treatment and utilization of packaging waste. However, so far, no laws and regulations on packaging and waste treatment in line with China's national conditions have been formulated. This situation also restricts the implementation of the relevant provisions of green packaging in China to a certain extent. Green packaging will be ignored in production. Once the goods are introduced to the international market competition, they will find that their products are in a very disadvantageous position in packaging. At the same time, some foreign commodities whose packaging level is not up to the green standard will also enter China because China lacks the corresponding packaging laws to promote the implementation of the major projects of "research and development and utilization of key new materials", and will try to find out and solve the difficulties and problems existing in the use of users in a timely manner, which will bring varying degrees of harm to Chinese consumers and the ecological environment

IV. countermeasures for establishing China's green packaging system

the environmental protection laws and regulations of Europe and the United States and other countries have high requirements and standards for the ease of handling and recyclability of commodity packaging materials. However, the commodity packaging materials exported by China are backward, difficult to handle and have low recyclability. Some export products are still packed with wood, straw and other materials, which not only have rough appearance, And often because it contains diseases and pests, it has been repeatedly criticized and restricted by importing countries, which has caused many products in China to be unable to export due to packaging problems. According to statistics, the foreign trade losses caused by packaging are as high as 10billion yuan per year. At the same time, because they are not familiar with the relevant laws and regulations of foreign packaging, many commodity packaging can not meet the requirements of foreign investors, resulting in significant losses. Therefore, China must formulate and take corresponding strategies and measures to establish a green packaging system as soon as possible to meet the needs of contemporary international trade. However, the establishment of the green packaging system is a systematic project, which involves both the superstructure and the economic foundation. It requires the joint participation of the government, enterprises and consumers, and the joint efforts of law, management, technology and education to build a green packaging system with Chinese characteristics

1. From the perspective of administrative management, the national government is required to coordinate the departments of environment, economy and trade, commodity inspection, industry and commerce, production enterprises, etc. to guide and promote the development of green packaging and the design, production and use of packaging waste in China in accordance with relevant national laws, institutional environmental protection standards, mark certification system, administrative regulations and management measures. Adhere to the green requirements in the design, production, sales and use of packaging, and strictly supervise. Packaging wastes included in the packaging waste recycling and treatment system must bear green packaging marks; Otherwise, the recycling and treatment system will not be responsible for recycling, but will be recycled by the manufacturer itself, and can be reused, regenerated or otherwise treated without polluting the environment. This provision is also applicable to foreign manufacturers exporting to China

in addition, the government should properly support the packaging industry through industrial policies. In view of the late start and low level of China's packaging industry, the government should give appropriate support to the industry in the process of participating in international competition. The government should follow the principle of giving priority to economic means to give certain preferential policies to the packaging industry in terms of environmental governance, taxation, credit, etc. at the same time, let enterprises form a good mechanism to introduce, absorb and meet the standards of advanced packaging technology, and give full play to the micro initiative of packaging enterprises

2. From the perspective of production enterprises, production enterprises should pay close attention to scientific research, actively use and invent new technologies, and improve the level of packaging technology. Attention should be paid to solving the following problems: (1) research and develop new green packaging materials, implement the "4r+1d" principle of the green packaging system, effectively utilize resources and save energy in combination with China's resource situation, take the reduction of packaging as an important measure, reduce packaging waste, and find a way to develop new packaging materials in China. (2) Strengthen research on green packaging technologies such as degradation technology, recycling and reuse technology, and production of substitutes. Because of the non decomposability of plastics, packaging waste is not easy to decay, which is easier to cause pollution than other packaging materials. It is very important to solve the problem of plastic degradation. At present, the degradable plastics being researched and developed at home and abroad mainly include photodegradation, biodegradation, water-soluble degradation, etc. (3) Development of technology and equipment for treatment and comprehensive utilization of packaging waste

3. From the perspective of consumers, consumers also need to strengthen their awareness of environmental protection. When selecting and purchasing commodities, they should pay more attention to the environmental pollution caused by product packaging. The concept of product packaging has changed from the pursuit of luxury and refinement to simplicity, practicality and environmental friendliness

to sum up, the establishment of China's green packaging system means that the whole process of Baofen products from raw material selection to product manufacturing, use, recycling and waste should meet the requirements of ecological environment protection. "Green packaging" should not only give full play to its functions of "packaging" and "packaging" and improve the added value of products, but also be harmless to the environment on which human beings live, renewable or returnable to the ecosystem of the biosphere. Implement appropriate packaging and develop new materials. Improve recycling rate and develop reusable packaging. Apply high and new technology and improve treatment technology. Implement environmental protection legislation and formulate development plans. The development of China's green packaging industry is not only for the current interests, but also for future generations to take the road of sustainable development, create a green home and a green world

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